This domain includes live performances of theatre, dance, opera, musical theatre, orchestras, music groups and artists, circuses, puppetry, and multidisciplinary events such as celebrations and festivals
Live Performance includes not-for-profit as well as for-profit activities. Live Performance consists of two core sub-domains: Performing Arts and Festivals and Celebrations.
Performing Arts consist of five groupings:
- Theatre (except Musical),
- Musical theatre and Opera,
- Music, and
- Other performing arts.
Festivals and Celebrations consist of organized series of live special events and performances, usually in one or a few outdoor venues, or in non-dedicated in-door venues. Examples of festivals and celebrations include: the Sand Festival; Blantyre Arts Festival; The Lake of Stars; Mlakho waAlhomwe; Umtheto
Visual and Applied Arts
The Visual and Applied Arts domain includes four core sub-domains: Original Visual Art, Art Reproductions, Photography, and Crafts, and three ancillary sub-domains: Advertising, Architecture and Design. Commercial establishments, such as commercial art galleries or artist-run galleries, which exhibit, sell or exchange visual and applied arts, are included.
These sub-domains focus on the creation of art works that are visual in nature and may be multi-dimensional.
- Original Visual Art consists of original paintings, sculptures, original and limited edition prints, drawings, mixed media works, installations, engravings, lithographs, original, unpublished artist books, electronic art, and fibre works.
- Art Reproductions include copies of original visual arts produced with the use of technology, such as unlimited edition prints, posters, statuettes, and ornaments.
- Photography includes photographs of any type or content. As with books, the content or medium of the photograph is immaterial as the creative act of photography meets the criteria for core culture. Photographic images contain copyright, which the photographer may retain or sell to others. Images, taken for artistic reasons, may be sold for commercial purposes and vice versa. For this reason, the photograph’s content or objective, whether it is artistic, social, commercial, or educational, is not a relevant factor in its inclusion as part of culture.
Crafts are original artisanal products that have been “produced by artisans, either completely by hand or with the help of hand-tools, or even mechanical means, as long as the direct manual contribution of the artisan remains the most substantial component of the finished product” (UNESCO and ITC 1997, p. 6). Crafts include a wide range of produced goods, ranging from blown glass, jewellery, and carvings to tapestries, artisan-produced paper, weavings, and ceramics. They can be produced in a wide variety of materials such as fibre, leather, metal, pottery, textiles, wood, or glass and may be used for functional or decorative purposes.
Advertising, like design and architecture, is only in scope for the creative activity undertaken in advertising agencies in the creation of advertising content. The creative design of an advertisement, whether print, broadcast, or electronic, meets the definition of culture. Production is also included because the skills and products used to produce advertising are creative, such as song and jingle writing, script and text writing, acting, singing, drawing, film, video and audio production, casting, design, visual arts, photography, etc. Other advertising activities, such as public relations, media buying, direct mail, telemarketing, leasing of billboards, and ad placement are related to the final non-culture product (the publicity), and are excluded.
Architecture is concerned with the design of buildings and with landscape design. Creation services that are included in this group include design and construction documents; and plans, studies and other advisory services related to the design of buildings of public and private residential and non-residential buildings, structures, and environments. This sub-domain also includes urban planning. Only the design services of architecture and landscape architecture are included in culture, the physical construction of the buildings or built landscapes themselves are excluded unless designated as historic site they will be include in the Heritage domain
Design is a creative activity that transforms objects, environments, and services. Design is also a product in itself, in that it is an input into many other final products, including those produced by the live performance, publishing, broadcasting, film, and sound recording industries. Others include graphic, interior, industrial, jewellery, fashion, website, and other specialty design services. Engineering design is excluded from the definition of culture. Landscape design is included in the Architecture sub-domain.