The Written and Published Works domain represents a wide variety of publishing described in its core sub-domains of Books, Periodicals, Newspapers and Other Published Works, and ancillary sub-domain of Collected Information.

There are international and historical precedents for grouping publishing industries together, especially where steps in the creative chain come together at the wholesale and retail distribution levels. In all cases, written and published works in this domain warrant copyright protection.

In Malawi as in many other countries, copyright applies to all original literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works. In addition to books, periodicals and newspapers, copyright protection exists for other published works such as maps, calendars, postcards, pamphlets, and greeting cards. In many instances they are included as core culture products as Other Published Works.

Written and Published Works includes content in traditional print formats, as well as CD-ROM’s, diskettes, audiocassettes, microform, Braille, and on-line and downloadable electronic publications, such as e-zines and audio books, on-line newspapers, and eBooks. The consumer can obtain these products through any number of paid or unpaid means including libraries, subscriptions, new and used retail venues, free distribution, websites, podcasts, RSS feeds, etc.

Core sub-domains

Books: In an increasingly digital world, there is no longer an internationally agreed upon definition of book.

a book as a set of written pages, published as a single entity, and which may contain a story, information, poems, photographs, drawings, and other forms of writing, on any subject matter. The concept of books requiring binding and a cover to distinguish them from other types of publications is important in the case of print publications, but is not relevant for books available in non-print formats, such as engraved, digital, or audio formats. Artist’s book works, consisting of original unpublished visual art, are not treated as books, but are in the Original Visual Arts sub-domain of Visual and Applied Arts. Book festivals or fairs, are part of this sub-domain.

Periodicals are published works that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule, e.g. weekly, monthly, quarterly or annually. The content can cover any subject matter and can be available in print, digital, audio, or other formats. Periodicals can include consumer magazines, academic journals, newsletters, trade publications, or other types of regularly released publications.

  1. Newspapers are a type of periodical publication, released on a regular schedule that contain news, editorial, information, and advertising, and may be available for a fee or free-of-charge, in print, digital or other formats.
  2. Other Published Works include published materials, in printed or digital form, such as brochures, leaflets, postcards, greeting cards, and calendars. These published works are eligible as culture products because they have copyright protection and are the result of creative activity.
  3. Ancillary sub-domain

Other publications, such as catalogues, directories, and related material, are not core culture products, but are defined as ancillary culture products


See database for more information on players in the publishing industry in Malawi